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2.1.6 Islam and Christianity Outline

Yahweh created Islam inspiring Muhammad (Arabic: دمحم) in Mecca through Gabriel. Muhammad didn't call Yahweh by name, but called "Allah" out of respect for Yahweh.

Muhammad was born in 570 CE in Mecca. He became a merchant. One day in 610 CE, he meditated praying in a cave near Mecca and encountered the angel Gabriel. Muhammad was told some stories and teachings by Gabriel. Muhammad started spreading the teachings in Mecca. However, Muhammad and his believers were quite persecuted in Mecca, they moved to Yathrib (Medina) in 622 CE. His teachings were quite accepted in Yathrib and he formed the religious community. Muhammad was instructed by God in February 624 CE that they should face Mecca during prayers. Muhammad's warriors conquered Mecca in 630 CE and the Arabian Peninsula in 632 CE. Muhammad died in Yathrib in 632 CE. However, Islamic empires, which succeeded Muhammad, continued their expansion after that.

Muhammad Receiving the First Revelation from the Angel Gabriel by Unknown Author
*Attribution: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mohammed_receiving_revelation_from_the_angel_Gabriel.jpg

* "Muhammad in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muhammad

* "Islam in Wikipedia" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islam Details Annex of Judaism and Christianity

In contrast to historical friction between Islam and Christianity, Muhammad and the Quran approve of the Old Testament and the New Testament willingly and positively.
Islam is, in a sense, an annex of Judaism and Christianity
*"Allah -there is no deity except Him, the Ever-Living, the Sustainer of existence. He has sent down upon you, [O Muhammad], the Book in truth, confirming what was before it. And He revealed the Torah and the Gospel" (Quran 3:2-3, Sahih International).

* "Corpus Various English Translations of Quran" http://corpus.quran.com/translation.jsp
* "Corpus Quran Word by Word" http://corpus.quran.com/wordbyword.jsp
* "Quran.com" http://quran.com/1

The Quran refers to over 50 people (prophets and legitimate persons) in the Bible, such as Adam, Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Esau, Jacob, Moses, and Jesus (Isa).
* "List of People in both the Bible and the Quran in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Common_Qur%27anic_and_Biblical_Figures
* "Biblical Narratives in the Quran in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biblical_narratives_and_the_Quran#Moses_.28M.C5.ABs.C4.81_.D9.85.D9.88.D8.B3.D9.89.29
Quran, sura 3 Al-I-Imran, ayat 33 (3:33) refers to Adam and Abraham.
* http://www.quraninenglish.com/cgi-local/pages.pl?/quran&img=205
Quran 6:83-86 refers to Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Noah, Moses, Yasa (Elisha).
Quran sometimes refers to Jesus (Isa). For instance, Quran, sura 19 Maryam (Mary), ayat 30-33 (19:30-33) refers to the first prophecy by Jesus (Isa) spoken in a cradle in his infancy.
* Quran 19:30- http://www.quraninenglish.com/cgi-local/pages.pl?/quran&img=1122
* "Jesus in Islam in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jesus_in_Islam
Thus "Yahweh" was written as "Allah" in the Quran, as "Yahweh" was mostly written as "Lord" in the Bible. Beliefs of Islam Overview

Beliefs of Islam consist of the six articles and the five pillars. The Six Articles

The six articles are:

(1) One God
Believers (Muslims) should believe in One God and monotheism

(2) Angels
Muslims should believe in the angels.

(3) Revelations
Muslims should believe in the Islamic holy books. The Islamic holy books consist of the Quran, Torah, the Book of Psalms, Gospels, and other supposedly lost books such as Scrolls of Abraham.
* "Islamic Holy Books in Wikipedia" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islamic_holy_books
The Quran is the collection of Yahweh's statement which was given to Muhammad through Gabriel to be recited.
A proper English translation of the Quran would be Sahin International's "The Noble Quran."
* "The Noble Quran" https://quran.com/
Otherwise, Tanzil Quran Navigator conveniently provides various translations.
* "Tanzil Quran Navigator" http://tanzil.net/#2:1

(4) Prophets
Muslims should believe in the prophets and messengers. The representative prophet is Muhammad. Authorized descriptions about Muhammad (Muhammad' statement, acts, and attitudes) and related persons, except the Quran, are Hadith in a broad sense, while Hadith has multiple meanings.
* "Hadith in Wikipedia" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hadith
A proper English translation of Hadith would be "Sunnah.com."
* "Sunnah.com" https://sunnah.com/

(5) Resurrection and Judgement
Muslims should believe in the Last Judgment and Resurrection.

(6) Divine Will
It could be claimed that Muslims should believe in predestination.

The first five would be attributed for example to 4:136, Quran.
"O you who have believed, believe in Allah and His Messenger and the Book that He sent down upon His Messenger and the Scripture which He sent down before. And whoever disbelieves in Allah, His angels, His books, His messengers, and the Last Day has certainly gone far astray" (An-Nisa 4:136, Sahin International, Quran).
* "An-Nisa 4: 136" https://quran.com/4/136
On the other hand, validity of Divine Will is controversial. The 5 Pillars (Acts of Worship)

(1) Shahada: Faith
Muslims should declare faith and trust that professes that there is only one God (Allah) and that Muhammad is God's messenger.
(2) Salat : Prayer
Muslims should practice formal worship in Islam.
(3) Zakat : Charity
Muslims who are able to give their charity should do that.
(4) Sawm: Fasting
Muslims should fast from food and drink from dawn to dust during the month of Ramadan.
(5) Hajj: Pilgrimage to Mecca
Muslims who can afford to do it should make a pilgrimage to Mecca in their lifetime.

These rules would be attributed to the Hadith of Gabriel, which would be narrated by Gabriel.
* "Hadith of Gabriel in Wikipedia" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hadith_of_Gabriel
*From the viewpoint of Raelians, Islam requires the highest loyalty to Yahweh since loyalty of humanity on the Earth to the Elohim is a matter of the highest importance as mentioned before. From the viewpoint of Raelians, fasting comes from the ideas of "Sensual Meditation" mentioned later. Other Representative Examples of Islamic Law

(1) Aniconism in Islam
Aniconism in Islam rejects idols. An attribution could be as follows.
*"And [Abraham] said, 'You have only taken, other than Allah, idols as [a bond of] affection among you in worldly life. Then on the Day of Resurrection you will deny one another and curse one another, and your refuge will be the Fire, and you will not have any helpers'" (29:25, Quran).
* "29:25 Quran" https://quran.com/29/25
* "Aniconism in Islam in Wikipedia" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aniconism_in_Islam

(2) Halal Food
Islamic Law requires compliance with some regulations as far as food. An attribution would be as follows.
"Prohibited to you are dead animals, blood, the flesh of swine, and that which has been dedicated to other than Allah, and [those animals] killed by strangling or by a violent blow or by a head-long fall or by the goring of horns, and those from which a wild animal has eaten, except what you [are able to] slaughter [before its death], and those which are sacrificed on stone altars, and [prohibited is] that you seek decision through divining arrows. That is grave disobedience. This day those who disbelieve have despaired of [defeating] your religion; so fear them not, but fear Me. This day I have perfected for you your religion and completed My favor upon you and have approved for you Islam as religion. But whoever is forced by severe hunger with no inclination to sin -then indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful" (5:3, Quran).
* "5:3 Quran" https://quran.com/5/3
* "Halal in Wikipedia" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halal

(3) Women Dress Code
As far as women dress code, Islamic Law requires covering their bodies except face and hands. An attribution would be as follows.
"And tell the believing women to reduce [some] of their vision and guard their private parts and not expose their adornment except that which [necessarily] appears thereof and to wrap [a portion of] their headcovers over their chests and not expose their adornment except to their husbands, their fathers, their husbands' fathers, their sons, their husbands' sons, their brothers, their brothers' sons, their sisters' sons, their women, that which their right hands possess, or those male attendants having no physical desire, or children who are not yet aware of the private aspects of women. And let them not stamp their feet to make known what they conceal of their adornment. And turn to Allah in repentance, all of you, O believers, that you might succeed" (24:31, Quran).
* "24:31 Quran" https://quran.com/24/31
* "Women in Islam in Wikipedia" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Women_in_Islam Learning Arabic Language Arabic Alphabet

The Arabic language is written from right to left.
The Arabic alphabet is commonly written in cursive letters, in other cases in Unicode block letters.
On the other hand, Arabic cursive letters change the shapes depending on the situation. Generally, there are 4 kinds of forms (isolated form, initial form, middle form, and end form). When a letter is written alone separated from other letters, the shape of the letter should be isolated form. When a letter is written at the right edge of a word (at the initial of a word), the shape of the letter should be initial form. When a letter is written at the left edge of a word (at the end of a word), the shape of the letter should be end form. When a letter is written in the middle area of a word (neither initial nor end), the shape of the letter should be middle form.
Thus the Arabic alphabet has various forms, while a simple gateway to learn the Arabic alphabet could be learning following Unicode block isolated form. The following are Arabic block isolated forms, the names of the letters, examples of "transliteration" and pronunciation.
1. ا=alif="a" long vowel like in apple
2. ب=baa="b" like in baby
3. ت=taa="t" like in tree
4. ث=tha="th" like in thanks
5. ج=jiim="j" like in John
6. ح=Haa="H" like in he yet light in pronunciation
7. خ=kha="kh" like in Bach
8. د=daal="d" like in dad
9. ذ=thal="dh" like in that
10. ر=raa="r" like in ran
11. ز=zay="z" like in zoo
12. س=siin="s" like in sing
13. ش=shiin="sh" like in shall
14. ص=Saad="S" like in salt
15. ض=Daad="D" like in dark
16. ط=Taa="T" like in table
17. ظ=Zaa="Z" like in those
18. ع=Ayn="'A" like in ago
19. غ=ghayn="gh" like in Ghana
20. ف=faa="f" like in far
21. ق=qaaf="q" like in Queen
22. ك=kaaf="k" like in Kent
23. ل=laam="l" like in love
24. م=miim="m" like in Moon
25. ن=nuun="n" like in nest
26. ه=haa="h" like in hand
27. و=waaw="w" long vowel like in word
28. ي=yaa="y" long vowel like in yet
In addition, other letters such as hamza should be learned.
Afterwards, the other forms and cursive letters should be learned.
* "My Easy Arabic" http://www.myeasyarabic.com/site/arabic_alphabet_learn.htm
* "Arabic Alphabet in Wikipedia" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arabic_alphabet Introduction to Arabic Language

A proper gateway to learn Arabic could be "Arabic Reading Course.com."
* "Arabic Reading Course" http://arabicreadingcourse.com/ Kaaba

Muhammad ruled Mecca in 630 CE and made the Black Stone and the Kaaba sacred to Islam. (Kaaba: "Cube" in Arabic)
Before Muhammad took over Mecca, Arab tribes had their own gods and objects to worship, and built sanctuaries to house them. The Kaaba and the Black Stone were one of these before Muhammad's takeover.
After Muhammad took control of Mecca, he destroyed all the worship objects and temples he considered useless, including the 360 idols in the Kaaba, and declared only the Kaaba and the Black Stone sacred. The Kaaba has been called the Kaaba since before Muhammad, and has been repeatedly destroyed and rebuilt. Around the time Muhammad reached adulthood, the Kaaba is said to have been burnt down, and then rebuilt with wood and stone. The current Kaaba is a black cube-shaped temple approximately 10 meters on a side, made mainly of stone and wood. The main body is made of stacked stones made mainly of granite and basalt, and is covered with a black curtain called Kiswah. The corners of the Kaaba are oriented in the north, south, east, and west directions, and the Black Stones are embedded on the outside of the wall in the eastern corner.
During the time of Muhammad, the Black Stone was a single stone with a diameter of about 30 cm, but it was later broken into several pieces around in the 7th century or the 10th century CE, they are embeded on the corner of the building surrounded by a silver frame.
The origin of the Kaaba is unknown, but one theory says that it was originally a place of worship for angels before the creation of mankind, and that Abraham and his eldest son Ishmael rebuilt the after it was destroyed by Noah's flood. It is said that an angel, who may have been Gabriel, brought him the Black Stone, which he placed in the east corner of the building.
Regarding the origin of the Black Stone, it is said that it was given to Adam and Eve from heaven to show them the place to build a place of worship (altar) when they met again in Mecca. (Adam and Eve were expelled from the Garden of Eden, separated, and Adam wandered as far as Indus before meeting again with Eve in Mecca.) This explanation might provide some basis for the fact that the object of Islam's highest worship is the Black Stones.

The Kaaba in December 2020 CE

Diagram Image of the Kaaba
1 the Black Stone
2 Entrance
12 Kiswah

Technical Drawing of the Kaaba

the Black Stones in the Silver Frame

Illustration of the Black Stones

Muhammad Fixing the Black Stone into the Kaaba

*Attribution: "Kaaba in Wikipedia" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kaaba
*Attribution: "Black Stone in Wikipedia" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_Stone
However, the corner of the building is covered with a strangely shaped silver frame with a vertical oval hole. There seems to be some reason why the building in which they are embedded is a black cube. (The word "cube" is thought to come from the fact that the Kaaba is cubic.)
One possible clue to this is that the name "Kaaba" comes from the Anatolian-Syrian fertility, life, and renewal goddess Kubaba (later Cybele in Greece), who was worshiped in the nearby Anatolian region or Syria. Kubaba was purportedly originally worshiped in the Anatolian region such as Çatalhöyük, Karahan Tepe, and the oldest ruins of the world, Göbekli Tepe, which date back to around 10,000 BCE.
If the original idea of the Kaaba is a goddess, it is reasonable to think that her form was transformed into a cube in Islam, which forbids idol worship. Furthermore, since it is a legitimate practice in Islam to cover a woman's body with black cloth in order to hide her sexual attractiveness, it is understandable that the Kaaba is covered in black cloth accordingly. The vertical oval hole at the right angle of the woman might suggest something. And the Black Stones are placed inside the hole.

A Relief of Goddess Kubaba
* "Kubaba (Goddess) in Wikipedia" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kubaba_(goddess)
* "Çatalhöyük in Wikipedia" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Çatalhöyük
* "Karahan Tepe in Wikipedia" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karahan_Tepe
* "Göbekli Tepe in Wikipedia" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Göbekli_Tepe

A Muslim Woman Wearing a Niqab in Saudi Arabia

Women Wearing Burqas of different colors in Afghanistan in 1975 CE

* "Niqāb in Wikipedia" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Niqāb
* "Burqa in Wikipedia" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burqa Progress of Islamic Empires and Christian Empires

Muhammd established the 1st Islamic Empire and died in 632 CE.
Two main powers competed for the position of successor leader (caliph or Imam). The fourth caliph (Shia 1st Imam) was Ali, a cousin of Muhammad, who was favored by the Madina power, and his wife was Muhammad's daughter, Fatima.

The Marriage of Ali and Fatima
* "Fatima in Wikipedia" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatima

However, Ali was assassinated by the opposing power in 661 CE, and the sect split in two. The Shiites were the Medina power and valued Ali's lineage. The Sunnis were related to Muhammad by blood and were the Umayyads who were the leadership of Mecca (the Sunnis also claimed to value Muhammad's doctrine).
The Sunnis then established the Umayyad dynasty from Damascus with the fifth caliph in 661 CE, expanding its territory and making the Sunnis (Umayyads) the mainstream of Islam.
However, part of the Shiites supporting Ali claimed that his position was taken over by the Abbasids. They overthrew the Umayyads in 750 CE, and the Abbasids ruled the Arabian Peninsula and its environs. However, the Abbasids turned Sunni due to the circumstances of domestic governance and came into conflict with the Shiites.
* "Abbasid Caliphate in Wikipedia" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abbasid_Caliphate

Territories of the Islamic Empire from 622 CE to 750 CE
(750 CE as the Abbasid Dynasty)

Territories of the Frankish Kingdom as of 734 CE

As far as the Frankish Kingdom, the Merovingian dynasty declined, the mayer of the palace Pepin the Short took over the power. Pepin the Short allied with the western Trinitary Church and established the Carolingian dynasty of the Frankish Kingdom in 751 CE. Pepin the Short extended the territory, donated some parts of the Italian peninsula to the western Trinitary Church in 756 CE, it became the Papal State.

Territories of the Frankish Kingdom as of 801 CE
(The Papal States in Red)

Eventually, the Frankish Kingdom was divided into 3 kingdoms, the East Frankish Kingdom, the Middle Frankish Kingdom, and the West Frankish Kingdom in 843 CE.

Territories of the Frankish Kingdoms as of 843 CE
(The Papal States in Red)

The territories of the Abbasid Dynasty of the Islamic Empire as of 850 CE would be shown below.

Territories of the Islamic Empire as of 850 CE

Territories of the Empires as of 850 CE would be shown below.
The Byzantine Empire dominated the Balkans and Anatolia.

Territories of the Empires as of 850 CE

After a while, the Middle Frankish Kingdom was subdivided into the East Frankish Kingdom, the West Frankish Kingdom, and the Kingdom of Italy in 870 CE. The Kingdom of Italy contained the Papal States.

Territories of the Frankish Kingdoms and the Kingdom of Italy as of 870 CE
(The Papal States in Red)

The western Trinitary Church became close to the Eastern Frankish Kingdom, the Eastern Frankish Kingdom and the Kingdom of Italy became the Holy Roman Empire allied with the western Trinitary Church in 962 CE, while the east Trinitary Church and the west Trinitary Church became estranged.
Territories of the Holy Roman Empire as of 962 CE
(The Papal States in Red)
*Attribution: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:HRR.gif

Meanwhile, the Abbasid Dynasty declined, the Fatimid Dynasty of the Islamic Empire from present-day Tunisia (as of 2020 CE) (Central Africa along the Mediterranean Sea) dominated around presen-day Egypt (as of 2020 CE) around 1000 CE.

Territories of the Fatimid Dynasty of the Islamic Empire around 1000 CE
* "Fatimid Caliphate in Wikipedia" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatimid_Caliphate

Eventually, the eastern Trinitary Church and in the western Trinitary Church opposed each other with regard to detailed issues, separated in 1054 CE.
The eastern Trinitary Church was called the Orthodox Church or the Orthodox Catholic Church, the western Trinitary Church was called the Catholic Church or the Roman Catholic Church.
Spheres of Influence of the Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church as of 1054 CE
*Attribution: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Great_Schism_1054_with_former_borders.png

Meanwhile, the Abbasid Dynasty declined, the Seljuq Dynasty of the Islamic Empire arose around 1071 CE.

Territories of the Seljuq Dynasty of the Islamic Empire as of 1092 CE

The Byzantine Empire faced a crisis and allied with the western Trinitary Church (the Catholic Church), the Catholic Church organized the Crusader for the first time in 1095 CE, according to the commonly accepted theory.
The first Crusader advanced to Jerusalem, established the Kingdom of Jerusalem in 1099 CE. Subsequently, the Kingdom of Jerusalem fell in 1291 CE.

As far as the Roman Catholic Church in the Holy Roma Empire, Martin Luther claimed Evangelicalism making much of the Gospel and established Protestantism in 1529 CE opposing the system and domination of the Roman Catholic Church, while Protestantism would make much of the Trinity.

Subsequently, most of the Papal States were lost having been annexed to Italy around 1870 CE. The Roman Catholic Church managed to secure a small area of 0.44 km2, Vatican, where Saint Peter's Basilica is constructed as the possible burial site of Saint Peter, in Rome.

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