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2.6.2 Classical Physics Overview

Classical Physics presented Newtonian Mechanics and Maxwell's Equations as follows. Details Ancient Magnetism

Ancient people for example Aristotle (384-322 BCE) knew stones attracting iron.

The stones attracting iron were named magnets after Magnetia island in Greece. William Gilbert's Discovery of Electricity in 1600 CE

When amber is rubbed, it attracts small objects.

Gilbert's Claim
Gilbert dustinguished the power of rubbed amber and magnetism. Gilbert called the attracting thing "electricus" ("like amber" in Latin).
* "William Gilbert in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Gilbert_(astronomer) Guericke's Electrostatic Generator in 1663 CE

Rubbed sulphur globes generate "electricus."

Guericke's Invention
Guericke invented an electrostatic generator rubbing a sulphur globe in 1663 CE.
* "Electrostatic Generator in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrostatic_generator Newtonian Mechanics and Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation in 1687 CE

According to Galilei (1564-1642 CE) 's claim or common sense, moving objects go straight if gravity and resistance are ignored (for example, a ball on a horizontal board). However, the moon doesn't go straight away, but turns around the earth.

Newton's Claim
Newton claimed the earth radiates gravity, the moon is attracted by the gravity of the earth. In addition, every object radiates gravity, which attracts other objects. Invention of Leyden Jar in 1745 CE

Electrostatic Generators had been invented. Some kinds of substances store static electricity.

Leyden Jars
Leyden Jars to store static electricity were invented. Investigation of Lightning in 1750 CE

Lightning was similar to discharge of electricity.

Result of the Investigation
Lightning was identified as discharge of electricity employing Leyden Jars by Benjamin Franklin in 1750 CE. Voltaic Pile in 1800 CE.

When 2 different metals were connected to a frog's leg, the leg went into convulsions.

Voltaic Pile
Alessandro Volta invented the Voltaic Pile, an electric battery producing a stable electric current, in 1800 CE.
* "Alessandro Volta in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alessandro_Volta Dalton's Atomism around 1808 CE

For example, nitrogen and oxygen combine forming 5 kinds of compounds.
For example,
"compound 1"'s mass ratio of nitrogen/oxygen = 1/0.57.
"compound 2"'s mass ratio of nitrogen/oxygen = 1/1.14.
"compound 3"'s mass ratio of nitrogen/oxygen = 1/1.71.
"compound 4"'s mass ratio of nitrogen/oxygen = 1/2.28.
"compound 5"'s mass ratio of nitrogen/oxygen = 1/2.86.
0.57, 1.14, 1.71, 2.28, and 2.86 would be interpreted as "0.57" x 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 respectively.

Dalton's Claim
Dalton claimed "Law of Multiple Proportions," proposed indivisible unit "atom" and each chemical element is composed of some atoms. He also presented an atomic theory, but it was not accepted at that time. Invention of Geissler Tube in 1857 CE

It had been known that lightning is caused by discharge of electricity.

Invention of Geissler Tube
Geissler Tubes are evacuated glass tubes equipped with electrodes. When a high voltage is applied, an electric current flows through the tube. Foucault's Measurement of the Speed of Light in 1862 CE

Rotating mirror device was available to measure the speed of light.

Foucault's Claim
Foucault improved the devices and succeeded in measuring the speed of light.
* "Speed of Light in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Speed_of_light#Connections_with_electromagnetism Maxwell's Equations in 1864 CE

Detailed relationship between magnetism and electricity was observed by various scientists.

Maxwell's Claims
Maxwell summarized and claimed detailed relationship between magnetism and electricity through Maxwell's Equations, for example as follows, in 1864 CE.
* "Maxwell's Equations in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maxwell%27s_equations
Where intensity of magnetism (magnetic field) varies, electricity (electric field) is generated (Faraday's Law). This phenomenon is called "electromagnetic induction."
"Electric field" (roughly means "electric spatial state" or "space filled with potential electric power or its intensity," commonly represented by "E") is derived from adjacent "electric charge." (Electric field (intensity of potential electric power) is proportional to adjacent electric charge.)
* http://upload.wikimedia.org/math/d/4/6/d46b953d19ec8ad255d2fc7ad1f4403d.png
("Field" in physics roughly means "spatial state involving something.")
Magnetic fields (magnetic spatial states) are generated in 2 ways derived from Ampere's Law and Maxwell's Correction. Based on Ampere's law, magnetic fields are generated by currents of electricity. In addition, based on Maxwell's correction, magnetic fields are also generated by changes of electric fields (intensity of electricity).
Then Maxwell claimed that if "electromagnetic waves" are created, repeat changes of electric fields generate repeat changing magnetic fields, repeat changing magnetic fields generate repeat changing electric fields, and such repeats are generated. Maxwell supposed presence of electromagnetic waves and estimated the speed of electromagnetic waves. Mathematically the speed was lead employing permittivity and electromagnetic permeability in a vacuum. Permittivity and permeability in a vacuum were measured and the speed of electromagnetic waves was estimated. The estimation was similar to the speed of light. Then Maxwell claimed "light" is a kind of electromagnetic waves in 1861 CE. Michelson–Morley Experiment in 1887 CE

Waves are generally thought to travel through a medium. (For example, sound is a wave travels through air as a medium.) Because "light" is a kind of electromagnetic waves even travels in vacuum space, a medium for light called "aether," a space-filling substance, was presumed. Since the earth at least revolves around the sun, the earth was presumed moving in stationary aether as if submarines advanced in stationary water in a lake. Then speeds of lights should differ depending on directions and the speed of aether on the earth should be measured from the difference of the light speeds. Based on this presumption, Michelson and Morley measured speeds of lights from various directions expecting to calculate the speed of aether on the earth in 1887 CE.

Result of the Experiment
However, contrary to the presumption, speeds of lights from various directions were the same. Hertz's Electromagnetic Wave Radiation in 1888 CE

Principles and possibility involving electromagnetic waves were clarified by Maxwell.

Hertz's Creation of Electromagnetic Waves
Hertz invented an electromagnetic wave generator in 1888 CE.
* "Heinrich Hertz in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heinrich_Hertz Roentgen's Discovery of X-ray Radiation in 1895 CE

Cathode Ray Tubes had been invented.

Discovery of X-rays
Roentgen discovered a new kind of ray, X-rays. Becquerel's Discovery of Radiation in 1896 CE

Roentgen discovered X-ray.

Becquerel's discovery
Becquerel discovered radiations from uranium. Zeeman's Discovery of Zeeman Effect in 1896 CE

Structure of atoms was unknown at that time.

Zeeman Effect
Zeeman found that sodium spectrum (sodium D lines) was splitted in magnetic fields. Details were unknown at that time. Thomson's Discovery of the Electron in 1897 CE

Geissler tubes developed into Cathode Ray Tubes. Cathode rays are deflected by magnetism.

Thomson's Discovery
Thomson improved cathode ray tubes and found cathode rays are deflected by electric fields. Then Thomson claimed that the rays were composed of electrically negatively charged small particles over 1000 times lighter than hydrogen atoms, later called "electrons." Thomson also claimed electrons were extracted from atoms, an atom generally includes electrons, and an atom (with neutral charge) consists of electrically negatively charged small electrons and an electrically positively charged entity. Rutherford's Discovery of Alpha Rays in 1898 CE

Radiations from uranium were discovered.

Rutherford's Claim
Rutherford discovered the radiations from uranium consist of 2 kinds of rays, classified and named them Alpha Rays and Beta Rays.

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