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2.6.13 Presumption of the Whole Inclusive Theory of Everything 2

2.6.13.1 Overview

Causal Dynamical Triangulation presented the right way. However, details are yet unclear.

From here, the former part of own assumptions about the Whole Inclusive Theory of Everything are presented.

2.6.13.2 Details

2.6.13.2.1 Isosceles Right Causal Triangles

As mentioned before, Causal Triangles of CDT would preferably be reformed to be Isosceles Right Triangles. (Green represents Causality.) In this case, the width (diagonal) would be like twice the Planck Length. The height would be like the Planck Time.

(Unlike Causal Triangles of CDT, inverted triangles here are employed for Bosons (except Higgs Bosons) and explanation of the inverted triangles is rather left out for simple explanation.)

Then the slants correspond to the speed of light.

In this case, one might presume that light travels along the slants. However, employing Quantum Field Theory, a triangle (or triangles) of Spacetime itself changes into part of waves (particles) of photons or electrons (possibly electron-positron pairs) (composing light), since it would be theoretically simpler and sufficient to account for the speed of light than presuming different existence such as particles and strings.

The yellow triangles of the above depiction are a simplified explanation of Light.

However precisely, Light is electromagnetic waves consisting of photons (Bosons) and electrons (Fermions) (possibly virtual electron-positron pairs) fluctuating in intensity. (Since inverted triangles here represent Bosons, the inverted yellow triangles above correspond to photons composing Light, and electrons (including electron-positron pairs) are left out, to be precise.)

On the other hand, as mentioned before in relation to Path Integral and Double-Slit Experiment, elementary particles (including photons, electrons, and positrons) would be a mere illusion misunderstanding partial aspects of (remained) waves or simplified expression of (remained) waves. Then "waves (particles) of photons or electrons (possibly electron-positron pairs)" should be interpreted in this sense. (The property of triangle changes into the property of waves (particles) of photons (or electrons or electron-positron pairs composing Light).)

Then the property of the triangle of Spacetime travels to the diagonally upward triangle (in the Planck Time). This would be the travel of waves (particles) of photons (and electrons or electron-positron pairs composing Light) at the speed of light.

2.6.13.2.2 Wave Propagatiom of Particles

2.6.13.2.2.1 Electromagnetic Waves' Propagation

On the other hand, prior to the central presumptions, photons' radiation should be considered for right thought.

As mentioned before, the essence of an electron is waves. In contrast, the essence of Light (electromagnetic wave) is fluctuation of photons' intensity (photons' number). Then the further question could be whether the essence of "a photon" could be waves.

Einstein's Light Quantum Hypothesis tells the energy of "a photon" is " E=

It might imply that the wave of a photon is associated with the frequency of the Light where the photon is included. Then it might result in the interpretation that something like the interval of photons (something like the interval between the lumps of the waves of photons) corresponds to or relates to the wavelength of the Light where the photon is included and the lumps of photons advance. Then (something like) the interval of lumps of photons might depend on the wavelength of the Light where the photon is included.

Supposing the simplest electromagnetic wave (Light), it would start with 2 photons. (Since mere 1 photon can't form any frequency or cycle of a wave, 2 photons are necessary.)

Firstly, (a wave of) a photon may be created and drift around an electron in an antenna. Secondly, if the electron moves away (in the antenna), the photon would be radiated. Thirdly, if the electron comes back, another photon would be created and drift around the electron. Fourthly, if the electron moves away again, the second photon would be radiated.

In addition as mentioned before like in the Double Slit Experiment, electromagnetic waves (Light) propagate in concentric ways (spherical wave propagation).

Such concentric propagation (spherical wave propagation) would be accounted for by the Huygens-Fresnel Principle. (The Huygens Principle accounts for the waves' creation ahead, the Fresnel Principle and more precisely Kirchhoff's Diffraction Formula account for the waves' extinction behind.) In this case as Huygens tells, new small waves are created everywhere adjacent to around the small waves existed just before, like below. As a consequence of such small waves' occurrence everywhere adjacent, new waves are created ahead through interference, while new waves behind are extiguished through interference.

* "Huygens-Fresnel Principle in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Huygens%E2%80%93Fresnel_principle

* "Kirchhoff's Diffraction Formula in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kirchhoff%27s_diffraction_formula

The next question is how such small waves are created everywhere adjacent to around the existing waves.

Here, there could be 2 possible ways of mechanism, "Electromagnetic Wave Mechanism 1" and "Electromagnetic Wave Mechanism 2" as follows.

"Electromagnetic Wave Mechanism 1" here would be the traditional theory. It claims that photons' fluctuation in intensity induces electrons' (electric field's) fluctuation, the electrons' fluctuation induces photons' fluctuation, and they repreat.

In contrast, "Electromagnetic Wave Mechanism 2" here would claim that photons (spacetime's situation as photons) spontaneously propagate through spacetime (spacetime's mediation), photons' fluctuation in intensity spontaneously propagates because of the original photons' fluctuation in intensity. In this claim, electrons' fluctuation in intensity merely comes from the propagated photons' fluctuation in intensity.

2.6.13.2.2.2 Electromagnetic Waves' Propagation (Assumption Mechanism 1)

Based on the assumption "Mechanism 1" (electrons' mediation), Electromagnetic waves' propagation might be explained as follows.

The 1st photon radiation from an electron means increase (coming) of photon at a slightly distant location. Then the increase (coming) of photon induces creation of electrons (or a virtual electron-positron pairs) at the slightly distant location everywhere around the photon and the 1st photon would be annihilated. The created electrons (or virtual electron-positron pairs) around the existed photon creates new photons (new waves of photons) everywhere around the electrons, the created electrons (or virtual electron-positron pairs) would be annihilated. The Huygens-Fresnel Principle works on the waves of the new (1st) photons. Then the location of the remained wave of the (1st) new remained photon would be designate through the Huygens-Fresnel Principle. Subsequently, similarly the wave of the (1st) next new photon would be designated through the Huygens-Fresnel Principle.

Thus (the wave of) the 1st photon would be reborn repeatedly (mediated by virtual electron-positron pairs) and the reborn photon wave stemmed from the 1st photon would advance continuing being reborn. (It should be noted that the photon itself wouldn't move. Locations concerned with the property of photons are moving in space.)

Subsequently, (the wave of) the 2nd photon comes, other (the 2nd) new electrons (or electron-positron pairs) are created everywhere around the 2nd photon, the 2nd photon is annihilated, and the 2nd new electrons (or electron-positron pairs) creates other new photons (the 2nd new photons) everywhere around the 2nd new electrons. The Huygens-Fresnel Principle works on the waves of the new (2nd) photons. Then the location of the remained wave of the (2nd) new remained photon would be designate through the Huygens-Fresnel Principle. Subsequently, similarly the wave of the (2nd) next new photon would be designated through the Huygens-Fresnel Principle.

Thus (the wave of) the 2nd photon would be reborn repeatedly (mediated by virtual electron-positron pairs) and the reborn photon wave stemmed from the 2nd photon would advance continuing being reborn.

According to the steadfast electromagnetism, the interval (cycle's period) of a electromagnetic wave corresponds to the interval (cycle's period) of electric fluctuation. Then the distance between the 2 photons' creation (or the 2 electrons' creation) might correspond to the interval (wavelength) of the electromagnetic wave (Light).

2.6.13.2.2.3 Electromagnetic Waves' Propagation (Assumption Mechanism 2)

2.6.13.2.2.3.1 Propagation of Photons and other Particles

If "Mechanism 2" (spacetime's mediation) is assumed, it would relate to photons' propagation from electromagnets and from electrons' direct current as follows. In contrast, if "Mechanism 1" (electrons' mediation) is assumed as above, it wouldn't accord with photons' propagation from electromagnets and from electrons' direct current below.

The essence of the magnetic lines of force from the N-pole to the S-pole of an electromagnet is photons. Photons are the particles responsible for magnetic force. In contrast to electromagnetic waves (Light), intensity of photons (number of photons) of electromagnets wouldn't fluctuate. The intensity of photons (number of photons) from the N-pole to the S-pole is constant. Then the frequency of photons relating to electromagnets would be like zero and the wavelength would be at most like infinite. However, if the electron circulation of the electromagnets stops, the magnetic lines of force will be extinguished.

Then the simplest photon model on magnetic lines of force could be as follows. Firstly, a photon drifts around an electron. Then if an electron runs in a circular coil, the photon is radiated figuratively from the N-pole and absorbed into the S-pole. More specifically, the wave of the photon (at most infinite in length) links the N-pole and the S-pole in a C-shape or a crescent-shape for a short time. If the electron circulation continues and new photons are continuously radiated, the C-shaped photon waves would remain. However, if the electron circulation stops and the radiation stops, the C-shaped photon waves (magnetic lines of force) disappear.

Going into detsils, a simplified example about electromagnets would be a linear electric wire where direct electric current is running. The linear electric wire forms orbicularis magnetic lines of force around the wire. The C-shaped photon waves (C-shaped magnetic lines of force) are merely an aspect of waves composed of multiple orbicularis magnetic lines of force, because part of an electromagnet is merely a linear electric wire. (The deformation of photon waves from the original orbicularis magnetic lines to C-shaped magnetic lines implies the interference on the magnetic lines. The mechanism of the deformation would be interference.)

The mechanism of the orbicularis magnetic lines of force (orbicularis photon waves) would be as follows.

Firstly, if the 1st electron runs through a point of the linear electric wire, the 1st photon wave woud be radiated forming a small ring. Secondly, if the 2nd electron passes through the point, the 2nd photon wave would be radiated forming a small ring, while the 1st photon wave diffuses forming the larger ring. Thirdly, if the 3rd electron passes, the 3rd photon wave would be radiated, while the 1st photon wave and the 2nd photon wave diffuse forming larger rings complying with the Inverse-Square Law.

In addition, the minimum unit of photon's wave would be like the Magnetic Flux Quantum noted through the Meissner Effect.

* "Magnetic Flux Quantum in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_flux_quantum

Other than that, it should be noted that in this case, the properties of the wave of a photon at "A" and at "B" show the same property. In other words, the property of a photon observed at "A" and the property of the photon observed at "B" is the same, since a wave (a particle) would spread over a wide area and the photon observed at "A" and the photon observed at "B" is identical. This would be the background of Quantum Entanglement. As mentioned before, according to Quantum Entanglement, waves (particles) would be simultaneously related across over a wide area. Since a wave (a particle) would spread over a wide area, seeming distant waves (particles) can be simultaneously related as Quantum Entanglement.

Next, the circumstances of photons' radiation from a constant electrons' current would be depicted as follows. In this case, photons are constantly continuously radiated with no (or little) fluctuation in intensity, and according to the Field Theory, waves of photon would be transmitted changing (or rather keeping) the property of Spacetime.

Aside from that, as mentioned above, spherical wave propagation is generally closely associated with the Huygens-Fresnel Principle. (The Huygens Principle accounts for the waves' creation ahead, the Fresnel Principle and more precisely Kirchhoff's Diffraction Formula account for the waves' extinction behind.) The spherical waves of photons from direct electron current as depicted above could be supported by the Huygens-Fresnel Principle (and Kirchhoff's Diffraction Formula). In this case, as Huygens tells, new small waves are created everywhere adjacent to around the small waves existed just before. As a consequence of such small waves' occurrence everywhere adjacent, new waves are created ahead through interference, while new waves behind are extiguished through interference. In this case, new adjacent small waves would be created mediated by spacetime itself (spacetime's mediation).

Mediation by spacetime itself would be rather common not only on photons but also on various particles.

Variois small waves would be created in all directions through spacetime. Spacetime mediates transmission of various particles' waves. On the other hand, some waves (behind) would be extinguished through interference, new waves would be created ahead through interference.

2.6.13.2.2.3.2 Details of Electromagnetic Waves' Propagation (Assumption Mechanism 2)

Based on the assumption that particles' waves including photons' waves propagate mediated by Spacetime, electromagnetic waves' propagation would be explained as follows.

If the 1st photon is radiated from an electron, it would create new (1st) photons (new waves of photons) everywhere around the 1st photon mediated by spacetime. The existed 1st photon would be annihilated. The Huygens-Fresnel Principle works on the waves of the new (1st) photons. Then the location of the remained wave of the (1st) new remained photon would be designate through the Huygens-Fresnel Principle. Subsequently, similarly the wave of the (1st) next new photon would be designated through the Huygens-Fresnel Principle.

Thus (the wave of) the 1st photon would be reborn repeatedly (mediated by spacetime) and the reborn photon wave stemmed from the 1st photon would advance continuing being reborn. (It should be noted that according to the Field Theory the photon itself wouldn't move. Locations concerned with the property of photons are moving in space.)

Subsequently, (the wave of) the 2nd photon comes, other (the 2nd) new (waves of) photons are created everywhere around the 2nd photon, the existed 2nd photon is annihilated. The Huygens-Fresnel Principle works on the waves of the new (2nd) photons. Then the location of the remained wave of the (2nd) new remained photon would be designate through the Huygens-Fresnel Principle. Subsequently, similarly the wave of the (2nd) next new photon would be designated through the Huygens-Fresnel Principle.

Thus (the wave of) the 2nd photon would be reborn repeatedly (mediated by spacetime) and the reborn photon wave stemmed from the 2nd photon would advance continuing being reborn.

Similar to photons' propagation from direct current, Electromagnetic Waves and their photons would propagate based on "Mechanism 2" rather than "Mechanism 1."

Other than that, the distance between the 2 photons' creation might correspond to the interval (wavelength) of the electromagnetic wave (Light).

2.6.13.2.2.4 Light Quantum Hypothesis

As mentioned above, Einstein's Light Quantum Hypothesis tells the energy of "a photon" is " E=h * f ," where f is the frequency of Light. ("f" is tentatively employed instead of "ν", because of misleading form of "ν" (nu; the 13rd letter of the Greek alphabet) and "v" (the 22nd letter of the Latin alphabet)) It might imply that the wave of a photon is associated with the frequency of the Light where the photon is included.

The relation between Frequency and the Energy of a Photon ( E=

The context implies relation between "increasing rate of photon connected with the frequency (period of the cycle)" and "Energy of a photon." If the period of the cycle slightly varies, the "increasing rate of photon" slightly varies and the Energy of a photon slightly varies, not like discretely (not like stepping-stones).

However, details are yet unclear.