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2.6.14 Presumption of the Whole Inclusive Theory of Everything 3

2.6.14.1 Overview

Causal Dynamical Triangulation presented the right way.

From here, the latter part of own assumptions about the Whole Inclusive Theory of Everything are presented.

2.6.14.2 Details

2.6.14.2.1 Fractal Triangles and the Uncertainty Principle on Small Scales

The central presumptions are resumed from here.

As mentioned before, the structure of the triangles would be macroscopically rather continuous homogeneous.

In contrast, the structure of the triangles would be microscopically rather Fractal on small scales. The structure differs depending on the scales near the Planck Length.

On the other hand, the Uncertainty Principle tells that the property involving the Uncertainty differs depending on the scales near the Planck Length.

The context above implies relation between the Fractal Structure and the Uncertainty Principle deficient in Causality.

Then the model is reformed to be composed of larger triangles covered with Causality and smaller Fractal triangles representing Uncertainty. The covering Causality (macroscopic Causality) corresponds to the Green lines and the small Uncertainty corresponds to warm colors, such as Orange, Pink, and Red.

2.6.14.2.2 Spacetime Triangles and Particles (or Strings) including Graviton

According to the General Theory of Relativity, Gravity derives from Curvature of Spacetime.

On the other hand, according to the Standard Model, Gravitons from Mass cause Gravity. In addition, according to the Higgs Mechanism, particles originally travel at the speed of light, but when "particles deficient in symmetry," such as Quarks, Leptons, and Weak Bosons encounter Higgs Bosons (and Quark-Antiquark Pair Condensate), their transfer is resisted. The resistance is Mass.

Unifying these theories, then Gravitons (from the encounter of "particles deficient in symmetry" with Higgs Bosons (and Quark-Antiquark Pair Condensate)) curve Spacetime. Thus Gravitons are closely associated with the structure and shape of Spacetime, then Gravitons could be assumed to be a deformed Spacetime, not particles. The context is illustrated below.

When waves of Quarks encounter waves of Higgs Bosons, some parts of Spacetime (inverted triangles) changes their property to be waves of Gravitons. Then the inverted triangles bear the property as waves of Gravitons (property of deformation). (Inverted triangles are tentatively employed here for waves of Gravitons and other bosons (except Higgs Bosons) and Fractal structure of inverted triangles are left out just for simple explanation.)

Then waves of Gravitons diffuse at the Speed of Light and curve adjacent Spacetime triangles.

The assumption here exclusively consists of Triangles of Spacetime. Proper (independent) models of particles or strings are excluded, but property of the Triangles are assumed to bear the property of waves of particles or strings (or vacuum). Waves of particles or strings are assumed merely varieties of Spacetime Triangles, parts of Spacetime.

For example, creation of waves of (virtual) photons around waves of an electron and their travel would be illustrated as follows. (Generally, (waves of) virtual photons are created and annihilated around (waves of) electrons.) Some parts of waves of electrons correspond to the small orange triangles and Some parts of waves of photons correspond to the inverted yellow triangles. (Fractal structure of the inverted triangles are left out just for simple explanation.)

Similarly, a small pink-purple triangle and a small scarlet triangle above could correspond to part of waves of a quark and a Higgs Boson.

Unlike classical physics, the assumption here is that (waves of) particles are merely variations of property of small parts of Spacetime. Since particles are closely associated with Spacetime, there is no need to presume proper (independent) models of particles separately from Spacetime.

For example, waves of Gravitons curve Spacetime. Waves of photons (or Light) travel along the designated routes of Spacetime. When part of Spacetime is curved, the routes of the waves of photons (or Light) are curved depending on the curvature of the Spacetime. Almost stationary substances such as waves of quarks would stay along the Spacetime. Waves of virtual particles frequently emerge and disappear everywhere in Spacetime.

Thus (waves of) particles are closely associated with Spacetime, there is no need to presume proper (independent) models of particles separately from Spacetime, according to the assumption here.

On the other hand, it shoud be noted that the assumption here doesn't mean the shape of (waves of) particles are triangles. Triangles are merely parables to explain the property of (waves of) particles in Spacetime, as particles (and strings) are parables as well.

Aside from that, Superstring Theory and Triangles could be unified to a certain extent.

2.6.14.2.3 Mass-Energy Equivalence and the Higgs Mechanism

The Special Theory of Relativity derived Mass-Energy Equivalence, E=m*c^2 (" E^2=c^2*p^2 + m^2*c^4 ," to be precise.).

On the other hand, the Higgs Mechanism claims mass is resistance of Higgs Bosons (Quark-Antiquark Pair Condensate) to particles deficient in symmetry.

These theories derive a question of unclear relation between energy and resistance involving particles deficient in symmetry.

However, the coverage of Mass-Energy Equivalence bearing no relation to Quantum Mechanics is unclear. Then the question is not serious.

2.6.14.2.4 Mass, Energy, Waves of Particles, and Spacetime

The relation between Mass, Energy, Waves of Particles, and Spacetime should be clarified. The assumption here would be as follows.

As mentioned before, the fundamental structure of Spacetime would be simulated by Triangles. Then the basic components would be compared to the Causal Triangles.

Next, vacuum space or waves of vacuum space would be compared to Causal Triangles with loose springs meaning low energy or less energy like below.

Thirdly, if some energy is added into part of Spacetime, property of the Spacetime changes. It is as if springs were curled to a certain extent accumulating some energy. In this case, the energy level is rather low and the Triangle correspond to waves of bosons such as photons. There would be some variety of curls (changes of properties) like photons, gluons, and so forth. They mostly (except Weak Bosons) have symmetry and have no mass even if they encounter waves of Higgs Bosons (or Quark-Antiquark Pair Condensate).

"Springs" are employed here to express dozens kinds of elementary particles in a unified form as Superstring Theory employed Strings to express dozens kinds of elementary particles.

(As mentioned before, dozens kinds of elementary particles couldn't be fundamental elements and they should be summarized in a proper form anyway.)

Fourthly, if a large amount of energy is added into part of Spacetime, the springs of the Triangles are strictly curled (for example twice) accumulating high energy. It would correspond to Fermions holding high energy such as electrons and quarks. They are deficient in symmetry.

On the other hand, if there is neither waves of Higgs Bosons nor Quark-Antiquark Pair Condensate, Fermions wouldn't have mass despite the deficiency in symmetry. It means the original form of Fermions couldn't be origin of gravity, if there is neither Higgs Bosons nor Quark-Antiquark Pair Condensate. Then the original shape of the Triangles of Fermions would be compared to isosceles right triangles with high energy.

However, if the Triangles with high energy and deficient in symmetry meet waves of Higgs Bosons (or Quark-Antiquark Pair Condensate), transformation of the shape of the isosceles right triangles into obtuse triangles (with high energy) would be induced by Higgs Bosons and so forth employing the energy in the triangles. In addition, adjacent inverted spacetime triangles would be transformed into obtuse triangles.

(In this case, "Highly Energy Filled Spacetime" for example corresponds to a Quark.)

The state of the waves of the transformed obtuse inverted triangles in this case would be called "Graviton."

Then the state of the waves of the transformed obtuse inverted triangles (Gravitons) would be transmitted, in a sense, at the speed of light.

Subsequently, when the transmitted transformed obtuse inverted triangles (Gravitons) meet normal Isosceles Right Triangles, they would curve Spacetime.

"Highly Energy Filled Spacetime" such as a Fermion might originally be created concentrating some Triangles through high energy process. The concentrated Triangles form a "Highly Energy Filled Triangle" and it might sometimes tend to expand transforming into an obtuse triangle.

As mentioned above, waves of photons (or Light) travel along the designated routes of Spacetime. Then waves of photons (or Light) wouldn't be able to go outside of Schwarzschild Radius. In contrast, Gravity is seen around a black hole (outside of Schwarzschild Radius). It means Gravity (transformed obtuse inverted triangles (Gravitons)) goes outside of Schwarzschild Radius regardless of strictly curved Spacetime. Thus propagation of Graviton (transformed obtuse inverted triangles) differs from propagation of waves of photons (or Light) and so on, to be precise.

2.6.14.2.5 Multiverse and Multilayered Fractal Structure

2.6.14.2.5.1 Rael's Cosmology

As mentioned before, according to Rael, Cosmology is explained as follows.

Each particle in this world (this cosmos) contains small cosmoses (small universes). The small cosmoses (universes) have fixed stars, planets, and so forth. Such millions of worlds (in millions of particles) are being created and annihilated at any time. Similarly, this cosmos (universe) is a particle of the larger universe. Such magnitude correlations link from infinite large universes to infinitesimal universes. On the other hand, time passage is inversely proportional to the mass (weight) or the level of the form of life of the worlds. For example, 1000 years in this cosmos correspond to the time passage to take one step of a walk for larger beings. Then because of the time passage's difference between the large universe and the small universe, communication between the 2 universe is impossible. In addition, space of a universe is infinite and there is no center. Time is infinite and there is no ultimate beginning.

Rael's cosmology requires myriad universes (Multiverse) and multilayered Fractal (self-similar) Structure. Myriad universes and Multilayered Fractal Structure would be examined below.

2.6.14.2.5.2 Overview of the Existing Cosmology

Prior to examination of Multiverse and Multilayered Fractal Structure, the existing cosmology would be summarized as follows.

The common consensus on cosmology as of 2013 CE would be the Big Bang and the Cosmic Inflation (pior to the Big Bang) accounting for the Horizon Problem and the Flatness Problem. The Big Bang is a comparatively slower expansion based on the Friedman Equation. However, the Horizon Problem and the Flatness Problem wouldn't be accounted for by the Big Bang. The Horizon Problem and the Flatness Problem are well accounted for by the Cosmic Inflation, an incredibly rapid expansion, pior to the Big Bang.

* "Inflation (Cosmology) in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inflation_(cosmology)

In contrast, further theories beyond the Cosmic Inflation are rather controversial. Any theory has neither decisive evidences nor decisive logic.

But yet, the theories would be classified as follows.

(1) Guth's Quantum Tunnelling Inflation

Guth claimed the Cosmic Inflation, pior to the Big Bang, started through Quantum Tunnelling. Generally, a particle emerges by chance in vacant space through Quantum Tunnelling. Guth claimed the origin of this universe appeared similarly through Quantum Tunnelling.

Generally, "Inflatons," a kind of particles or waves, are assumed to account for the Cosmic Inflation, since the Cosmic Inflation wouldn't be accounted for by other particles (or waves). "Inflatons" are merely assumed convenient particles (or waves) for physicists to account for the Cosmic Inflation. (Then details of Inflatons wouldn't be specified.)

Guth advocated False Vacuum and True Vacuum involving energy levels of Inflaton. According to Guth, there are 2 kinds of stable states from a view point of Inflaton's energy level, False Vacuum (with comparatively higher energy level) and True Vacuum (with lower energy level). According to Guth, the state moved from the False Vacuum to the True Vacuum through Quantum Tunnelling and the True Vacuum inflated because of the difference of energy.

* "False Vacuum in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/False_vacuum

(2) Eternal Inflationary Mother Universe

Another theory claims Eternal Inflation of Mother Universe. According to Linde's Chaotic Inflationary Theory, Mother Universe inflates eternally. On the other hand, the inflation results in cracks or bubbles like in carbonated water. Cracks or bubbles are randomly (chaotically) created, expand extremely rapidly at the beginning, then expand comparatively slowly. Linde estimated the number of such bubbles (universes) to be some 10^10^10000000. This universe is one of the cracks or bubbles created in the eternally inflating Mother Universe.

* "Eternal Inflation in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eternal_inflation

(3) Cyclic Model or Stationary Mother Universe

Cyclic Models claim the universe (or universes) repeats a cycle infinitely. A classical Cyclic Model would be Einstein's ended in failure.

Another representative model would be Steinhardt-Turok Model derived from the Ekpyrotic Universe Theory. According to the Ekpyrotic Universe Theory, 3 dimensional universes are compared to branes drifting in a higher dimensional (mother) space. 2 branes (universes) collide. The collision corresponds to the Big Bang. Then Steinhardt-Turok Model claims the expansion changes into contraction (shrinking). The contraction results in shrinking to a point (Big Crunch). In addition, a theory claims the shrinking again changes into an expansion and such cyclic shrinking and expansion repeat infinitely.

*Although the Brane Theory came from Superstring Theory, Ekpyrotic Universe and Steinhardt-Turok Model are not necessarily associated with Superstring Theory.

* "Cyclic Model in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyclic_model

2.6.14.2.5.3 Examination of Rael's Multiverse

As mentioned above, multiple universes (Multiverse) could be theorized among contemporary physics. In addition, Multiverse is a common issue in contemporary physics. Consequently, Multiverse of Rael's claim could be acceptable.

* "Multiverse in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiverse

Other than that, from a viewpoint of accounting for physical fundamental constants favorable for life (Anthropic Principle), "Universes with different Physical Constants" would be preferable. In addition, the number of universes like more than 10^100 would be preferable to account for this universe's favorable physical constants delivered by chance.

Aside from that, the preferable assumption among Eternal Inflation, Cyclic Model, and Stationary Mother Universe might be the Ekpyrotic Universe in Stationary Mother Universe. (The whole structure or mechanism of Eternal Inflation is yet incomprehensible.) An outline of the Ekpyrotic Universe in Stationary Mother Universe would be as follows. Multiple Universes (compared to Branes) drift in the Stationary Mother Universe. 2 Universes sometimes collide. When 2 Universes collide, one or more Universes would be instantly created. The instant creation of the Universe corresponds to the Cosmic Inflation.

By the way, the Mother Universe assumed here could be 3-dimensional space.

(The original Ekpyrotic Universe assumes a higher dimensional mother universe. However, validity of higher dimension and the higher dimension of the mother universe is unclear.)

2.6.14.2.5.4 Examination of Rael's Multilayered Fractal Structure

In contrast, Fractal Structure or Multilayered Fractal Structure wouldn't be seen in the above cosmological summary. Fractal Structure or Multilayered Fractal Structure wouldn't be a major issue of physics.

Historically, Linde (advocator of Chaotic Inflation) claimed fractal structure on extremely large scales for example over the observable universe. The subsequent claim on extremely small scales would be Causal Dynamical Triangulation. Then Multilayered Fractal Structure of Rael's claim seems to be acceptable based on Causal Dynamical Triangulation.

* "Fractal Cosmology in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fractal_cosmology

However, Causal Dynamical Triangulation as of 2012 CE wouldn't state details of Fractal Structure, let alone Multilayered Fractal Structure. Then Multilayered Fractal Structure should be theorized here developing Causal Dynamical Triangulation.

2.6.14.2.5.5 Development of Fractal Structure

CDT implied Dimension Reduction and Partial Fractal Structure on small scales. This sudden one-sided structural change at a certain small scale should be accounted for.

A possible account would be that such property was delivered by chance because of an infinite number of universes like the anthropic principle.

However, another possible solution assumed here would be that increase and decrease of Dimension are repeating in reality. It means Fractal structures and Non-Fractal structures are repeating depending on scales.

The following is an example of Repeating Layered Partial Fractal Structure assumed here.

In this case, twice enlargement is Non-Fractal.

However, 4 times enlargement shows Fractal.

Specifically, Dimension varies depending on scales as follows.

Then the Repeating Layered Partial Fracral Structure in Isosceles Right Triangles would be as follows. It holds self-similar shape in the smaller green triangles. It means Homogeneous Structures and Fractal Structures are repeating depending on scales.

Then for example, a stationary Quark advancing upward depending on time passage might be illustrated as follows.

Consequently more specifically, the Layered Structure of the Universes like Rael's prediction could be illustrated as follows.

This Universe consists of an infinite number of particles dominated by the Uncertainty Principle. The particles are covered with the Uncertainty Principle or low dimensional space. Inside of the particles is separated from the outside of the particles because of the Uncertainty Principle or low dimensional space. However, the inside of a particle is another smaller Universe with faster time passage because of smaller triangles. Similarly, this Universe is merely a particle (part of remained waves) of the larger Universe with slower time passage (because of larger triangles). Thus Universes consist of layered structure lasting infinitely both in larger way and smaller way.

If particles (parts of remained waves) collide and new particles (new parts of remained waves) are created in a universe of level 1, it means creation of new universes (Big Bangs) of level 2.

Presence of higher living things in other (separated) Universes might be possible because of an infinite number of universes, although emergence of higher living things is an extremely rare accident.

2.6.14.2.6 Basis of 4-Dimensional Spacetime and the Minimum Units's Fractal Structure

Problems remained would be the basis of 4-Dimensional existential Spacetime (3-Dimensional existential Space and 1-Dimensional existential Time) and their minimum units' fractal structure. An implication could be Exotic Differentiable Structure of 4-Dimensional Euclidean conceptual space mentioned before, while it is basically a mathematical idea.

As mentioned before, Exotic Differentiable Structure of 4-Dimensional Euclidean conceptual space in mathematics would be figured out in reference to deformation of manifolds (in a sense, deformation of smooth conceptual things).

The following (1), the square-like blue conceptual thing (idea) with round corners represents a manifold. (2) represents a smoothly deformed manifold from (1). Since the deformation from (1) into (2) is smooth, smooth continuative lines are commonly kept smooth.

In relation to 4-Dimensional Euclidean conceptual space of mathematics, (1) could be deformed into (5). The following (5) could be a fine image and (6) could be a broader image of Exotic Differentiable Structure of 4-Dimensional Euclidean conceptual space.

As mentioned before, the square-like blue conceptual thing with round corners represents 4-Dimensional Euclidean conceptual space. Various-Dimensional Euclidean conceptual spaces including 4-Dimensional Euclidean conceptual space are manifolds. Since manifolds are smooth conceptual things, the blue conceptual thing (idea) here (4-Dimensional Euclidean conceptual space) is smoothly depicted without any pointy corner.

On the other hand, according to Freedman's Theorem and Donaldson's Theorem, 4-Dimensional Euclidean conceptual space has non-smooth lines, while the lines correspond to other corresponding manifold's (counterpart's) smooth lines.

The blue conceptual thing (5) here has like cavernous twisted structure to comply with the above 2 conditions (blue conceptual thing's smoothness and corresponding continuative lines' non-smoothness).

Other than that, presuming a broader image as (6), (6) consists of small units.

Next, application of 4-Dimensional Euclidean conceptual space's properties to "3-Dimensional Euclidean existential Space and 1-Dimensional Euclidean existential Time" should be considered.

Commonly, 4-Dimensional Euclidean existential Space would be assumed as an application of 4-Dimensional Euclidean conceptual space's laws. However, as mentioned repeatedly, 4-Dimensional Euclidean conceptual space is basically conceptual thing. Existential distances to 4 directions are not necessary to be applied to.

Consequently, laws of 4-Dimensional Euclidean conceptual space would be applied to the coordinate system consisting of 4 axes. Then, laws of 4-Dimensional Euclidean conceptual space would be applied to "3-Dimensional Euclidean existential Space and 1-Dimensional (Euclidean) existential Time." ("Euclidean existential Time" merely means real Time.)

The structure of "3-Dimensional Euclidean Space and 1-Dimensional Time (4-Dimensional Euclidean existential Spacetime)" would be like (5) and (6).

Specifically, a possible view could be that just after a Big Bang, existential Spacetime once grows to be 4-Dimensional existential Spacetime, while 1-Dimensional existential Time should be presumed as a premise anyway.

It attempts to grow to be 4-Dimensional existential Spacetime or higher-Dimensional existential Spacetime, yet faces the laws of 4-Dimensional Euclidean space. It tends to deform from (1) to (5). However, on the way to (5), it becomes like (7).

When it becomes like (7), a pointy corner is formed, an existential small Big Bang might start at the corner. Subsequently, an existential small universe from the small Big Bang might be created like the twisted dent of (5).

From a broader point of view, the 4-Dimensional existential Spacetime forms the deformed special and non-smooth structure like (6) (possibly the dent and twisted structure is covered with the Uncertainty Principle). It consists of small units with somewhat inequities. (The variety of inequities corresponds to the variety of so-called particles.) The approximate size of the special structure depends on the property of the existential Spacetime like elasticity.

The special structure would be similarly created in the existential small universe, existential far small Big Bangs and existential far small universes would be created. They form fractal structure.

Thus, topologically "4-dimension" provides extremely special property possibly because "4" is the least natural number except for prime numbers.

However, detailed origin of time, space, and the entity with various properties filling the space-time is yet unclear.

2.6.14.2.7 Products of Minimum Units and Smoothness

The special property of "Exotic Differentiable Structure" of 4-Dimensional Euclidean space was explained above employing Euclidean space and manifolds on the premise that the property is particular about smooth things. (Euclidean space and manifolds are smooth things.) In contrast, as explained before in "Beyond the Standard Model," it is presumed here that "Spacetime is inhomogeneous and consists of components with minimum units."

Generally, products made of minimum units are not necessarily smooth things. Then it might seem that the special property of 4-Demensional Euclidean space would not be suitable for the presumption of minimum units. However, when deployment of each minimum unit is destined depending on neighboring minimum units, the products become macroscopically smooth. Then the presumption of minimum units and the special property of 4-Dimensional Euclidean space would not conflict.

2.6.14.2.8 Whole Inclusive Theory of Everything

The above could be an outline of the Whole Inclusive Theory of Everything.